What are some effects of urban vegetation on urban climate and hot cities?

 The presence and/or lack of vegetation can affect solar radiation, air movement, and air temperature. Vegetation may be used to intercept solar radiation directly by providing shade and also indirectly by covering surfaces that reflect or re-radiate solar radiation. Vegetation may be used to manipulate air movement by obstruction, guidance, deflection, and filtration.


Vegetation stands and trees in urban areas can moderate air temperature extremes, more so than in open areas which can actually accumulate heat and are exposed to cold winds.